An Introduction to Neuroimmunology
Neuroimmunology aims to understand the interactions of the immune and nervous systems. Neural targets involved in many aspects of homeostasis are affected by inflammatory cytokines. The most well-known autoimmune neurological disorder is multiple sclerosis, characterised by an inflammatory autoimmune attack on the myelin sheath and neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation also plays a role in in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, stroke, chronic depression and schizophrenia. Neuroimmunology is also an important consideration in the design of neural implants. Further understanding of the balance between beneficial and pathological effects of the immune system on the neuronal system will facilitate the development of novel therapies.
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Satralizumab: An Interleukin-6 Receptor-blocking Therapy for Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
touchREVIEWS in Neurology. 2021;17(1):11-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USN.2021.17.1.11
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to cause recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Myelitis is radiologically referred to as longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis on spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), extending to ≥3 vertebral segments. The disease flare, either at […]
Advances in the Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders
US Neurology. 2020;16(1):38–42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USN.2020.16.1.38
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) refers to a family of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases in which patients accrue disability through severe episodes of demyelination with typical manifestations including involvement of visual pathways (e.g., optic neuritis) and spinal cord (longitudinally extensive myelitis). Other common symptoms, including intractable hiccups, nausea and vomiting are also well […]
Sean Pittock, EAN 2020 – Phase 3 PREVENT Study Insights in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
Sean Pittock (Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA) shared with us his expert insights from the phase 3 PREVENT study, a randomized controlled trial of eculizumab in AQP4 antibody-positive participants with neuromyelitis optica (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01892345), including a sub analysis he presented on eculizumab monotherapy. Questions 1. Could you give us an overview […]
Celia Oreja-Guevara, EAN 2020 – Regional Findings From The Phase 3 PREVENT Study in NMOSD
Great to have an opportunity to speak with Celia Oreja-Guevara (University Hospital San Carlos and University Complutense, Madrid, Spain) around the highlights of her presentation entitled: Regional outcomes of eculizumab treatment in patients with aquaporin-4 immunoglobin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: findings from the phase 3 PREVENT study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01892345). Questions 1. What were […]
Ofatumumab – A Potential Subcutaneous B-cell Therapy for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
European Neurological Review. 2020;15(1):27-35 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/ENR.2020.15.1.27
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered a primarily T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS); this is based on data from animal models,1 the presence of activated T lymphocytes in MS plaques that outnumber B cells and T-cell subset alterations in blood,2 the association of MS with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and a […]
Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin Therapy for Preventing Relapse and Maintaining Functional Ability in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
US Neurology. 2019;15(Suppl. 2):3–10
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare but challenging neuroimmunologic peripheral nerve disease with a chronic progressive or relapsing-remitting course.1,2 Effective maintenance therapies are critical for managing the condition, maintaining a response, and preventing relapse.3 In CIDP, symptoms result from demyelination of the peripheral nerves.4 The etiology of the disease is as yet unknown […]
Advances in Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Technology and its Immunomodulatory Effect in Neuromuscular Diseases
European Neurological Review. 2019;14(2):61–3
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been an accepted treatment for specific neurological disorders for several decades. For some medical professionals, it is seen as an effective treatment option alongside immunomodulatory therapies and other medicines. But its benefits for patients still need to be more widely recognised among medical professionals in many countries. Recent innovations in […]
Angela Vincent, MDS 2019 – Autoimmune movement disorders
It was an absolute pleasure to meet with Angela Vincent, Emeritus Professor of Neuroimmunology at the University of Oxford. Until 2016 she led the clinical and research laboratory at Oxford specialising in antibody-mediated neurological diseases. Despite not being a neurologist herself, she spoke from long experience of helping to identify and characterise pathogenic antibodies in […]
David Hafler, AAN 2019 – Regulatory T cell dysfunction and other therapeutic targets in MS
US Neurology Editorial Board member, David Hafler (Yale School of Medicine, Connecticut, USA) talks to us about his exciting latest research looking at regulatory T cell RNA sequencing in multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as other potential therapeutic targets. Questions 1. What are the major gaps in our understanding of the processes underlying multiple sclerosis […]
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