An Introduction to Neuroimmunology
Neuroimmunology aims to understand the interactions of the immune and nervous systems. Neural targets involved in many aspects of homeostasis are affected by inflammatory cytokines. The most well-known autoimmune neurological disorder is multiple sclerosis, characterised by an inflammatory autoimmune attack on the myelin sheath and neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation also plays a role in in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, stroke, chronic depression and schizophrenia. Neuroimmunology is also an important consideration in the design of neural implants. Further understanding of the balance between beneficial and pathological effects of the immune system on the neuronal system will facilitate the development of novel therapies.
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Understanding the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and the development of new therapies
Prof. Tobias Derfuss reviews the cellular model of disease in multiple sclerosis, and how pathophysiology can offer novel therapeutic targets.
- Explain the cellular model of disease in multiple sclerosis
- Explain how the pathobiology of multiple sclerosis drives the development of disease-modifying therapies
- Summarize the mechanism of action of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors and how this may translate into clinical benefits for patients with multiple sclerosis
Foreword – touchREVIEWS in Neurology, Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022
Welcome to our new issue of touchREVIEWS in Neurology, which features a wide range of topical articles covering various areas of neurology. We begin with two practice pearls. The first from Garg et al., focusses on the increasingly important subject of social media. Twitter provides a useful platform for clinicians, and this article provides advice on […]
Tomas Kalincik, ECTRIMS 2022: Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation vs. fingolimod, ocrelizumab and natalizumab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Expert interview with Prof. Tomas Kalincik, Dame Kate Campbell Professorial Fellow, Head of the Clinical Outcomes Research (CORe) Unit, University of Melbourne and MS Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Together with his research group, CORe, Prof Tomas Kalincik specialises in analytics of observational data in neurology. He is the chair of the Scientific […]
Sean Pittock, ECTRIMS 2022: Subgroup analyses from the phase 3 CHAMPION-NMOSD investigating ravulizumab for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
The CHAMPION-NMOSD trial (NCT04201262) is a global, open-label, multicentre, phase 3, externally controlled study of ravulizumab in adults with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In this touchNEUROLOGY interview, we caught up with Prof. Sean Pittock (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA) to discuss the pre-specified efficacy analyses in clinically relevant patient subgroups, and the […]
Sean Pittock, ECTRIMS 2022: Phase 3 CHAMPION-NMOSD trial results – Ravulizumab in the treatment of AQP4-IgG neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
The CHAMPION-NMOSD trial (NCT04201262) is a global, open-label, multicentre, phase 3, externally controlled study of ravulizumab in adults with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In this touchNEUROLOGY interview, we caught up with Prof. Sean Pittock (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA) to discuss the unmet needs in the treatment and management of NMOSD, and […]
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report
touchREVIEWS in Neurology. 2022;18(2): 153-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USN.2022.18.2.153
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a syndome characterized by a combination of clinical and radiological features.1–3 Its global incidence is unknown. It is underdiagnosed probably due to limited awareness. PRES presents with the rapid onset of neurological symptoms, such as headache, convulsion, altered consciousness and visual disturbance. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging […]
Treatment Updates in Paediatric-onset Multiple Sclerosis
touchREVIEWS in Neurology. 2022;18(1):42–8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USN.2022.18.1.42
Paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is the symptom onset and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) before the age of 18.1 Diagnostic criteria were revised by the International Pediatric MS Study Group in 2013. Compared to patients with adult-onset MS (AOMS), young patients are less likely to develop primary or secondary progressive MS and more likely to follow […]
Nina Muirhead: Impact of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) on the quality of life of family members – Results of an online survey
New findings from a recent study investigating the impact of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) on the quality of life (QoL) of family members are presented in this touchNEUROLOGY interview by one of the study authors, Dr Nina Muirhead (Doctors with M.E. Director). The results illustrate the significant negative impact on the QoL of partners […]
Jiwon Oh, AAN 2022: Tolebrutinib as a potential treatment in relapsing multiple sclerosis – Long-term extension study, phase 2b, 18-month results
Tolebrutinib is an oral, CNS-penetrant Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor with dual mechanism of action: peripheral B cell modulation and re-establishment of CNS microglial homeostasis. Dr Jiwon Oh (St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada) joins us to discuss the phase 2b trial (NCT03889639), investigating safety and efficacy of tolebrutinib in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. […]
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