Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the most common non-traumatic cause of disability in young adults. Recent research shows that vascular disease risk factors (VDRFs) such as obesity, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, can influence MS on its onset, disease activity, progression, and resultant disability. This review evaluates the current knowledge on the role of VDRFs on outcomes among people with MS (PwMS) and shows that while VDRF prevalence may or may not be higher among PwMS compared with the general population, its presence can influence MS in myriad ways. Management of VDRFs through early detection and treatment may be a promising approach to improving outcomes in PwMS.
Multiple sclerosis, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome
No funding was received in the publication of this article. Meena Kannan and Vijayshree Yadav have no relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Authorship: All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship of this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval to the version to be published.
Vijayshree Yadav, Mail Code L226, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, US. E: email@example.com
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