Traditional pharmacotherapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) aim to restore depleted dopamine levels in the brain. While treatments such as levodopa do provide a clinical benefit to patients, they are limited by long-term complications, including dyskinesia. Such treatments are also conceptually limited, since PD is a complicated disorder in which multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems are implicated. Within the basal ganglia (a group of interconnected brain nuclei that help to control voluntary movement) dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate all play key roles. Thus, it is important to approach the treatment of PD from several different angles, by targeting different neurotransmitter systems in addition to those that are dopaminergic. The glutamatergic system, the topic of this review, is one promising area for the development of new pharmacotherapies in PD. Through actions on the glutamate system, new pharmacotherapies have the potential to improve cognition, mood and pain, as well as motor symptoms.
Glutamate, basal ganglia, Parkinson’s disease, motor and non-motor symptoms
Peter Jenner reports receiving personal fees from Zambon SpA and Profile Pharma outside of this submitted work. Carla Caccia reports receiving personal fees from Zambon SpA outside of this submitted work and was employed by Newron Pharmaceuticals SpA up to 2010.
Double-blind peer review.
The named authors meet the criteria of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for authorship for this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole and have given final approval for the version to be published.
April 03, 2019
6 June 2019
June 21, 2019
Peter Jenner, Professor and Head, Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group (NDRG), School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, King’s College London, London, SE1 1UL, UK. E: email@example.comLinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/peter-jenner-89a96811
The publication of this article (but not the related video interview) was supported by Zambon SpA. The views and opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Zambon SpA.